27 May 2011

Modern Marathi theatre is based on Yakshagana ?

Yakshagana is one of the earliest forms of theatre in all of India in a language other than Sanskrit. We influence each other there is no point in squabbling.

--Encyclopedia of World Drama

Karki Yakshagana group which toured Maharashtra in the mid-19th century has the credit of inspiring Marathi theatre. In 1842, Karki Mela (group) performed before the Rajasaheb of Sangli (Maharashtra State), who encouraged court artists to learn from the group acting and singing. This laid basis for Marathi Professional theatre.

The first play in Marathi "Sita Swayamvar" was staged first in Sangli 1843 by Vishnudas Bhave.

--Encyclopaedia of Marathi Literature

Historical themes entered its repertoire and later Yakshagana troupes started travelling and performing at places outside their original domain. One such mela (troupe) journeyed as far north as Pune and, incidentally, formed an impetus for the beginning of modern Marathi theatre.
--Sangeetha Nataka Academy Website

--Eencyclopaedia of Indian Literature

"Influenced by Yakshagana, the traditional dance drama of rural Karnataka, the Marathi drama achieved a clear regional form by the middle of the 19th century. "

I am not making any claims (Yakshagana being old is an obvious one)! I am merely reproducing some of the references. This should not leave doubt in any ones minds.

ಮುಖ ವರ್ಣನೆ

ನೋಡಿದನು ಮೂರ್ತಿಯನು ಸ್ಫೂರ್ತಿಯನು ಆಡಿದತಿ          - ೨೦
ವಿಸ್ಮಯದ ಕು೦ಡಲದ ಮ೦ಡಲದ ಹೊಳಪಿನಲಿ                 - ೨೦
ನಗೆತೆರೆಗೆನ್ನೆಯ೦ಚಿನಲಿ ಮಿ೦ಚಿನಲಿ ತೇಲ್ಪ                       - ೨೦
ಕ೦ಗಳ೦ಗಳದ ಮ೦ಗಳದಲ೦ಕಾರದ೦ಕುರದ                  - ೨೩ 
ವೋಲ್ಮೂಡಿದ ಮೂಗಡಿಯ ಬಿರಿದ ತುಟಿಗಳ ನೆರಿಗೆಯ೦ದಗಳ    - ೨೬ 

ರೆಕ್ಕೆಯೊಳ ಪುಕ್ಕಗಳೊ ಕಣ್ಣೆವೆ ಕಟ್ಟಿನಾಕಾರ           - ೨೨
ವಕ್ಕುಸೆಕ್ಕಿದ ಹುಬ್ಬಿನೇಕಾವಳಿಯ ತೋರಣವು          - ೨೨
ಸೊಕ್ಕುರುಳಕ್ಕಪಕ್ಕಕೆ ಸುಳಿದುಸು೦ಯನಲೆದು        - ೨೦
ಇಕ್ಕಿದೆಳೆಯಡ್ಡಗು೦ಕುಮದುಕ್ಕು ಐದಿಕ್ಕಿಗಿಣುಕ        - ೨೩
ಲೊಕ್ಕಿದ೦ದಕೆ ತಾವಾಮೋರೆಯಿರ್ದುದು ಮೀರಲೆಣೆಯಿಲ್ಲ  - ೨೬  


ಸೂಚನೆ: ಇಲ್ಲಿ ವಾರ್ಧಿಕ ಷಟ್ಪದಿಯ ಲಯಕಾಣುತ್ತದೆ ಎ೦ದು ಕೊಳ್ಳುತೇನೆ. ಆದರೆ ಬೇರೆ ರೀತಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಆಯೋಜಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿದೆ ಎ೦ದುಕೊಳ್ಳಬಹುದು. ಹೊಸಲಯವಿದ್ದರೂ ಅದು ನನ್ನಲ್ಲಿ ಇನ್ನೂ ಅ೦ತಸ್ತವಾಗಿಲ್ಲವೆನ್ನುವುದು ಸ್ಪಷ್ಟ. ಅ೦ತಸ್ತವಾದರೆ ಮಾತ್ರೆಗಳ ಸ೦ಖ್ಯೆ ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರಾಸ ಸರಿಯಾಗಿ ಬರುತ್ತದೆ. ಅನುಪ್ರಾಸ ಮತ್ತು ಪದಲಾಲಿತ್ಯವೇ ಪ್ರಧಾನವಾಗಿ ಅರ್ಥ ಸೌ೦ದರ್ಯಕ್ಕೆ ಹಿನ್ನೆಡೆಯಾಗಿದೆ ಎನ್ನುವುದು ಗಮನಿಸಬೇಕಾದ ವಿಚಾರ. 

ರೆಕ್ಕೆಯ ಒಳ ಪುಕ್ಕಗಳೊ ಕಣ್ಣ ಎವೆ, ಕಟ್ಟಿನ ಆಕಾರ
ಅಕ್ಕು ಸೆಕ್ಕಿದ ಹುಬ್ಬಿನ ಏಕಾವಳಿಯ ತೋರಣವು
ಸೊಕ್ಕ ಕುರುಳು ಅಕ್ಕ ಪಕ್ಕಕೆ ಸುಳಿದು ಸು೦ಯನೆ ಅಲೆದು
ಇಕ್ಕಿದ ಅಡ್ಡ ಕು೦ಕುಮದ ಉಕ್ಕು ಐದಿಕ್ಕಿಗೆ ಇಣುಕಲ್
ಒಕ್ಕಿದ ಅ೦ದಕೆ ತಾವು ಆ ಮೋರೆ ಇರ್ದುದು ಮೀರಲ್ ಎಣೆ ಇಲ್ಲ

ರೆಕ್ಕೆಯ ಅಡಿಗೆ ಇರುವ ನುಣುಪಾದ ಪುಕ್ಕಗಳ೦ತೆ ಇರುವ ಕಣ್ಣಿನ ರೆಪ್ಪೆಯ ರಚನೆಗೆ,  ಮಾಡಿ ಸೆಕ್ಕಿದ ಒ೦ದೆಳೆ ತೋರಣದ೦ತಿರುವ ಹುಬ್ಬಿ ಕಟ್ಟಿನ೦ತಿದೆ. ಸೊಕ್ಕಿದ ಮು೦ಗುರುಳು ಸುಳಿದಾಡಿ ಎಲ್ಲದಿಕ್ಕಿಗೂ ಹೋಗುತ್ತಿರಲು ಸ೦ಸ್ಕರಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟ ಮಿತಿ ಇಲ್ಲದ ಸೌ೦ದರ್ಯಕ್ಕೆ ಮುಖ ಸ್ಥಳ ಒದಗಿಸುತ್ತಿತ್ತು.

ಕೆಲವು ವ್ಯಾಕರಣ ದೋಷಗಳಿವೆ. ಹುಡುಕಿ ನೋಡುವಾ!

26 May 2011

Gamaki Narahari Sharma Kerekoppa

Click below to listen to Gamaki Narahari Sharma 
(Sorry for the bad quality cell phone recording- It does not do justice his amazing voice and rendering)

ವಾನರಸಮುನ್ನತ ಧ್ವಜವರೂಥದೊಳೈದು
ವಾನರಸಮರ ಭರವನರಿದು ಕಾಳಗಕೆತಾ
ವಾನರರಸಮರ್ಥರೆ೦ದರ್ಜುನ೦ ಬರಲೆ೦ದು ನಿಜಸಾರಥಿಗೆ ಸೂಚಿಸಿ||
ದಾನವನರಾನಿಮಿಷರೊಳ್ನೀನೇ ಭಟನಹನಿ
ದಾನವನನೇಕಮುಖದಿ೦ಕೇಳ್ದು ಸ೦ಗ್ರಾಮ
ದಾನವನರಸಿಬ೦ದೆನೆ೦ದು ಎಚ್ಚನಾಸುಧನ್ವ೦ ಪಾರ್ಥನ೦ ಧುರದೊಳು|| ||

(That is Lakshmisha for you - at his best - in Narahariyanna's voice !) 
Gamaka or Kaavya Vaachana is a style of reading Kannada poems. To keep it interesting it is sung. But, the crux of it is literature, not music. Narahari Shrama being in a remote village like Kerekoppa learnt Gamaka from, I think, Hosabale Seetharama Rao. But he taught himself the music! His reading and splitting compounds is very clear. Emphasis on meanings and expressions is spot on. He brings right emotions to reading. Even if one gets Raga right, missed emphasis and incorrect selection of melody can ruin emotional impact that is very important in Kaavya Vaachana. When I hear Karnataki musicians singing Gamaka rather than reading poems I miss following things:

  • Simplicity of melody demanded by a particular phrase being read. Using a complex melody can ruin the emotion because emotions have a very tight relationship with time and structure of melodies.
  • Type of emphasis on particular phrase and matching a melody to suit the emotion in that phrase.
  • Demonstration of literary merit of poems through repetition and variation in emphasis and splitting.
  • I miss rhythm less flow of melody. Shatpadis (some meters [prosody]) are called Taala Rahita. i.e they do not have an inherent rhythm flow. Any reading should reflect lack of rhythm. This is particularly true with Maarta meters unlike Amsha meters. 
    Narahari Sharma gets them right. You feel as if you part of the whole thing that is going on in the poem. Even though musicians might have a thing or two to say. I do not care! They always do. I have not seen many "musicians" who are more happy to sing as things were 500 years ago, appreciate originality anyway. The "musicians" might be right but their perspective is incorrect when it comes to Kaavya Vaachana. Does Narahari Sharma get it all right? Yes, he does as long as HE decides what is right NOT you or me!

    To me, talent is any innate ability or ability acquired by self-study, exploration and realisations. Who trained the first mason or was it just his talent ? Which is first, the grammar theory or the language ? Which is first, melody or music theory ?  There were talented individuals who were creative enough to create music that others could contemplate to write the theory for! The thing about real talent is, it is original. If everyone sung Hindustani there wont be Yakshagana. Some one some day, out of pure talent or something, finds a different way of singing. If it is interesting enough people pick it up and it becomes a new kind of music. Talent and originality or people with them bring freshness which so called training suppresses. Therefore creative individuals must be preferred over copy cats. Gamaki Narahari Sharma Kerekoppa is one such self taught original individual. Have a good listen.

    Note: This is a cell phone recording with too much volume for Harmonium. So "musicians" out there with whatever little you know please do not judge based on this bad recording of mine.

    16 May 2011

    Unlocked In!

    Yes that is what you call the opposite of locked out. I took my wife's keys and she is forced to stay home. That is what I call Unlocked In! This is pretty sad and dumb for 21st century. Our locks are in stone age. Really, or may be metal age. I will keep quite since I do not have a solution. We need inexpensive (no electronic) keyless locks. That is how we begin. We will find out if that is not possible but let us not start saying. Huh, that is impossible: that is not how new stuff is invented.

    Our umbrellas are metal age as well by the way. How about a thin rain deflector cap or something!!I am dumb too for having collected all I can and leaving wife Unlocked In!